Unit 206 – Web Fundamentals
Aim of this unit
This unit provides knowledge of web architecture, components, and technologies. It also covers the implementation of website elements as part of web fundamentals.
1. Know web architecture and components
Knowing how the web works is a prerequisite for anyone who wants to be a web developer. You don’t need to know everything, but you should at least be familiar with the basics. That way, you’ll have a better understanding of how your code fits into the big picture, and you’ll be able to ask more intelligent questions.
There are three basic components to every website: the client, the server, and the database. The client is your computer or phone, and it sends requests to the server. The server responds by sending back HTML pages (or other types of files) that contain all of the content and layout information for the website. The database stores all of the data for the website—including text, images, and user interactions like login credentials and shopping cart contents.
The client and server communicate through the internet. The client sends requests to the server, which is usually hosted on a web host or in a cloud-based system like Amazon Web Services. The server responds with the requested data, and this response travels back to the client along an internet connection.
In addition to these components, there are other technologies involved in web architecture, such as APIs and caching. An API is a way for two different computer systems to communicate with one another—for example, you might use an API to add a commenting system or shopping cart to your website. Caching is the process of storing data in memory so that it can be delivered quickly when requested by a user.
By understanding these components and technologies, you’ll be better equipped to create robust, efficient websites that are optimized for performance. Keep in mind that web architecture is constantly evolving as new technologies are developed, so it’s important to stay up-to-date on the latest trends. With a little bit of knowledge and practice, you’ll be well on your way to becoming a webmaster.
In addition to these components, there are some other technologies that are used in web architecture such as CDNs, Content Delivery Networks. A CDN is a network of servers distributed across different geographies and can deliver content faster than a single server hosted in one location.
Another essential technology is cache busting. The idea behind it is to invalidate a cached file when it’s updated or changed in order to avoid serving outdated content to the users. This can be done by changing the URL of the file in question, which will force the browser to download a new copy instead of relying on its cache. By taking advantage of cache busting, you can ensure that your users always have the latest and most up-to-date version of the content.
Finally, SSL/TLS is another important technology in web architecture. SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer and is used to encrypt data transfer between a client and server. TLS stands for Transport Layer Security and is the successor to SSL. It provides an additional layer of security and trust between a website and its visitors, which is especially important for e-commerce websites that handle sensitive data such as credit card information.
By understanding how all of these technologies work together, you’ll be able to create efficient, secure websites that are optimized for performance. With a little bit of knowledge and practice, you’ll be well on your way to becoming a webmaster.
1.1 List the hardware and software components that enable the internet and web
The internet is a vast and complex system that connects millions of computers around the world. It relies on a variety of hardware and software components to function properly.
The most basic requirement for using the internet is a computer with a modem, which can be either internal or external. The modem translates digital signals into analogue waves that can be sent over telephone lines or cable TV networks. Typically these are built within a computer these days and are therefore unnoticeable.
Other elements required include:
Internet Service Provider
To access web pages and other online content, you also need an internet browser, such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, or Microsoft Edge. The browser interprets the HTML code embedded in web pages and displays them on your screen.
The internet relies on a suite of networks to function properly. These include routers, switches and cables that transmit data across different networks. Routers are responsible for forwarding packets from one network to another, while switches use packet-switching technology to route traffic between devices on the same network.
Wireless technology is used to connect devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets to the internet. Wi-Fi networks use a variety of radio frequencies to transmit data between computers, while cellular networks rely on cell towers and antennas for communication.
At the core of the internet are several software components that enable it to function properly. These include web servers, DNS servers, email servers and application servers. Web servers are responsible for delivering web pages to users when they request them, while DNS servers enable computers to look up domain names so that they can access content on the internet. Email and application servers provide a platform for users to exchange messages and access online services such as databases.
Firewalls are used to protect computers from malicious threats. They act as a barrier between your computer and the internet, filtering out unwanted traffic and protecting against hackers and other cybercriminals. Firewalls can be set up either on individual computers or at the router level.
In order to connect to the internet, your computer must be configured with an IP address and a DNS server address. The IP address is a unique number assigned to your computer by your ISP, while the DNS server address tells your browser where to find specific websites.
Other hardware components of the internet include routers, which connect networks together and allow for data exchange; servers, which host websites and other online services; firewalls, which protect against malicious attacks; and cables, which physically link computers together.
1.2 State the roles of the TCP/IP, HTTP and SMTP protocols
The TCP/IP protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. It is named after two of its most important protocols: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). The three protocols in the suite are TCP, UDP, and IP.
Only one protocol in the suite, IP, is required for two hosts to communicate. However, without TCP or UDP, communication would be very limited.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is an application-level protocol that is used to transmit hypertext (such as HTML documents and images) over the Internet. It allows for communication between a web browser (client) and a web server (host).
HTTP provides mechanisms for establishing connections, sending messages, routing requests, caching data, authentication, and encoding data.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is an application-level protocol that is used to send and receive electronic mail (email) over the Internet. It allows clients (such as email applications) to communicate with servers (such as mail servers).
SMTP provides mechanisms for establishing connections, sending messages, routing messages, and verifying addresses. It also supports features such as authentication and encryption for added security.
1.3 State the role of internet service providers, web hosting services and domain name registrars
The role of internet service providers (ISPs), web hosting services and domain name registrars is to provide the necessary infrastructure and services that allow websites to be accessed by users around the world. ISPs provide high-speed internet access, web hosting services offer storage space and domain name registrars manage the registration of website addresses.
All of these organizations work together to ensure that users can easily find and visit websites. Without their services, it would be much more difficult to find any website on the internet.
Furthermore, these organizations also enable websites to remain secure and protected while they are online. This helps ensure that users can safely visit and interact with websites without fear of malicious attacks or other online threats.
Therefore, ISPs, web hosting services and domain name registrars play an essential role in keeping the internet a safe and secure environment for users and website owners alike.
1.4 Identify available types of web functionality
With the growth of technology, the internet has evolved into different types of web functionality. The first stage, Web 1.0, was essentially a platform for static content. Websites were composed of basic HTML pages that users could view and navigate. There was very little interactivity or user-generated content.
In contrast, Web 2.0 brought about a new level of interactivity and collaboration among users. Websites became more dynamic, with users able to post comments, collaborate on documents, and share multimedia files. Additionally, the use of AJAX technologies allowed for more seamless interactions between users and websites.
We are now entering into the next phase of web development – Web 3.0. This stage will see even more advances in interactive technologies, including the use of semantic markup languages and cloud computing / online storage services, cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. This will allow for richer user experiences and more collaborative work environments.
In addition to Web 2.0 and 3.0, other types of web functionality such as blogs, online applications and cloud computing / online storage have become increasingly popular.
Blogs allow individuals to post thoughts and information regularly on the internet for others to read or comment on.
Online applications are tools that users can use directly through their browsers with no need for downloading or installing software.
Finally, cloud computing and online storage services provide users with the ability to store large amounts of data remotely on the internet. Both securely and conveniently within easy reach no matter where you are.
These types of web functionality are becoming increasingly important, as they allow users to collaborate more easily and share information quickly from any device. As technology continues to evolve, new ways of interacting and using the internet will continue to emerge.
2. Know about the technologies used to build and operate websites
Knowing about the technologies used to build and operate a website is important for anyone who wants to create or manage one. In order to make a website, you need to understand how the web works and what technologies are used to bring it to life.
You also need to be familiar with the different ways that websites can be hosted and how they can be accessed by users. By understanding the technology behind websites, you’ll be able to create better ones, troubleshoot any problems that may arise, and make your site more accessible to everyone.
One of the most important parts of web development is understanding HTML (HyperText Markup Language). This language is used to create web pages and make them available on the internet. HTML provides basic instructions for how a page should be structured and what content needs to be displayed.
Other languages such as CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) are used to add styling and formatting to the page, giving it a more professional look.
In order for websites to function properly, they need to be hosted on a web server. A web host provides the infrastructure that allows users from all over the world to access your website. Different types of hosting can provide different levels of performance and reliability, so it’s important to choose a hosting provider that meets your needs.
Finally, there are databases that are used to store data related to websites. These databases can be used for anything from tracking customer information to keeping track of the content on the site. Knowing how this work is important for anyone who wants to manage a website and make sure it’s running smoothly.
By understanding the technologies involved in creating and managing a website, you’ll be able to make your site more attractive, efficient, and secure. Knowing how web technologies work will also help you diagnose and fix any issues that may arise during the development process.
By learning about the different technologies used to build and operate websites, you’ll be better equipped to create successful websites that meet the needs of your users.
2.1 State the purpose of mark-up languages and list commonly used examples
Mark-up languages are designed to provide a human-readable representation of the structure of data. This allows for easy editing and modification of data, as well as making it easier to produce and read. Common examples of mark-up languages include:
HTML is used for structuring and presenting content on the web, while XML is often used for data storage and manipulation. YAML, or Yet Another Markup Language, is a plain-text format commonly used in configuration files. All three of these mark-up languages are widely used to structure information in documents and applications.
Mark-up languages are powerful tools in web development and content management. They provide the structure and organization necessary for data to be easily manipulated and interpreted. Through the use of mark-up languages, developers can create documents that are easier to read, edit, and maintain. By using these commonly used mark-up languages like HTML, XML and YAML, developers can create applications that are user-friendly and consistent across platforms.
Mark-up languages are essential for any application that needs to store or manipulate data in an organized way. They are also essential for ensuring that a document can be read and interpreted correctly, regardless of the platform or device used to view it. By using mark-up language, developers can quickly create documents that look professional and consistent across platforms.
2.2 Identify the roles of:
- Web runtime environments
- Web application programming languages and databases in building websites and web applications
The main roles of a WRE are to provide an execution environment for web applications, interpret and execute programming code written for the web, manage memory utilization of web applications, support the scalability and reliability of applications, and provide appropriate security features.
Additionally, WREs can also be used to integrate multiple application components in order to create powerful and interactive websites.
Furthermore, a WRE provides an easy way to develop and maintain web applications, as well as a secure environment for the development and deployment of applications. By using a WRE, developers can create and deploy custom web applications without having to understand or learn complex programming languages.
This makes it easier for developers to quickly implement new features that would otherwise require more time and effort. In addition, WREs provide a reliable and secure platform for developers to develop and deploy web applications, ensuring that users are able to access the application’s features securely.
Finally, WREs provide an efficient way for developers to maintain their applications and make any necessary changes or updates.
In conclusion, web runtime environments are essential for providing an execution environment for web applications. They are used to interpret and execute programming code, manage memory utilization of web applications, support the scalability and reliability of applications, and provide security features. They also make it easier for developers to quickly implement new features.
The WRE provides an efficient way for developers to maintain their web applications and ensure that users can access the application’s features securely.
Web application programming languages and databases are two of the most important tools for building websites and web applications. Web application programming languages, such as PHP, Java, and Ruby on Rails, allow developers to create the logic and structure for their applications. Databases, such as MySQL and MongoDB, store the data that makes up these applications. Together, these tools allow developers to create dynamic and interactive websites and web applications.
Developers must understand how to use these tools in order to effectively build websites and web applications. Additionally, they must be familiar with the different programming languages, databases, and frameworks that are available so that they can select the right tool for their individual needs.
With a combination of the right tools and an understanding of how to use them, developers can create powerful and effective websites and web applications.
Identify the steps involved in creating a website or web application
Creating a website or web application involves several steps. First, developers must identify the goals of their project and determine the features they want to include. Then, they must decide which programming language and database to use, as well as which web frameworks and libraries they will use to build the project. After that, developers can begin writing code and integrating APIs into their applications.
Finally, they should test their project extensively before launching it to ensure that it works properly. Creating a website or web application can be complex, but with the right tools and knowledge, developers can create powerful and effective applications.
Identify the tools developers use to create web applications
Developers use a variety of tools to create web applications. These include programming languages, such as PHP, Java, and Ruby on Rails; databases, such as MySQL and MongoDB; web frameworks, such as Laravel and Spring; libraries, such as React and jQuery; and APIs, such as Facebook Login.
Additionally, developers often use various web development tools, such as text editors, FTP clients, source control systems, and browser debugging tools. All of these tools can help developers create powerful and effective web applications.
Explain the importance of testing websites and web applications
Testing is an important part of the development process for websites and web applications. By testing their projects, developers can identify any potential errors or bugs before launching the application. This allows them to ensure that their projects are functioning properly and performing as expected.
Additionally, it can help them quickly identify and fix any issues that may arise after launch. Testing is an essential step in creating websites and web applications, as it helps ensure that the project functions correctly.
Describe the various ways to deploy a website or web application
Once a website or web application is complete, developers can choose from several options for deploying it. The most common way to deploy an application is via a web hosting provider, such as Amazon Web Services or DigitalOcean. Developers can also deploy their applications to a virtual private server, or use an application deployment service such as Heroku.
Additionally, developers can self-host their applications on their own server, or utilize a content delivery network (CDN). Each of these options has its own advantages and disadvantages and should be carefully considered before selecting a deployment option.
Explain the importance of website and web application security
Website and web application security is an essential step in the development process. Without it, applications can be vulnerable to malicious attacks, which can lead to serious consequences. Therefore, developers must ensure that their projects are secure by implementing best practices such as using encryption, updating software regularly, and using secure authentication methods.
Additionally, they should develop a comprehensive security plan that outlines the steps necessary to protect their application from potential threats. By taking the time to properly secure their applications, developers can help ensure that their projects are safe and secure.
Creating a website or web application for the web requires careful planning and consideration. Developers must choose the right programming language, database, and web frameworks to use; write code and integrate APIs; test their projects extensively; select a deployment option, and ensure their applications are secure. By taking these steps, developers can create powerful and effective websites and web applications that meet their needs.
In summary, creating websites or web applications for the web is a complex process, but with careful planning and consideration, developers can create powerful and effective projects. By using the right tools, testing their projects extensively, deploying them properly, and securing their applications, developers can ensure that their projects are functioning as intended. With the right knowledge and skillset, developers can create amazing websites or web applications that meet their needs.
2.3 Identify typical product stack combinations that can be used for web development
When it comes to web development, there are a variety of different product stack combinations that can be used. Some of the most common stack combinations and the benefits they offer are listed below:
1. LAMP Stack: This combination consists of Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. It is one of the most popular stacks since it powers many websites and applications. The benefit of this stack is that it’s open-source, easy to maintain, and reliable.
3. Ruby on Rails Stack: This stack consists of Ruby programming language and the Rails web application framework. It is an ideal choice for quickly developing dynamic websites that are built with the latest web technologies.
4. Django Stack: This stack consists of Python programming language and the Django web framework. It is a great choice for developing large-scale applications with complex requirements.
5. WordPress Stack: This stack consists of PHP, MySQL, and Apache. It is a popular choice for users who want to quickly develop a basic website.
By understanding the different product stack combinations, developers can make an informed decision about which one is best for their current project. With the right combination of technologies in place, web development projects will go much smoother and with fewer issues.
Overall, the key to success is taking the time to research and understand which technology works best for each particular project. By doing this, developers can ensure that they are using the best possible stack combination to get the job done.
3. Implement specified components of a website
Creating a website is a complex process that involves many different components. In order to create an effective and user-friendly website, it is important to understand the different aspects that go into making one. Some of the most important components include the following:
1) The design of the website – This includes the layout, colours, and graphics used on the site. It is important to make sure that the design is visually appealing and easy to navigate.
2) The content of the website – This includes the text, images, and other information on the site. It is important to make sure that all of the content is accurate and up-to-date.
3) The functionality of the website – This includes how users interact with the site, as well as any special features or functionality. It is important to make sure that all features are working properly and are user-friendly.
4) The security of the website – This includes making sure that the site is secure and free from any threats or vulnerabilities. It is important to make sure that all necessary measures are taken to protect user data and keep the site safe.
By understanding and implementing these components, it is possible to create an effective website that meets the needs of the user. By taking the time to plan and develop a website, you can ensure that your users have an enjoyable experience when using it.
3.1 Design specified components of a website showing
When it comes to website design, there are a few key components that need to be taken into consideration in order for the website to be effective. These components include the layout of the website, the use of images and graphics, and the content of the website. Each of these components can make or break a website’s success.
Layout of pages
The layout of a website is important because it determines how easy it is for users to find what they are looking for. A well-organized layout will help users navigate through the site with ease, while a poorly organized layout can confuse and frustrate users, causing them to leave the site.
Images and graphics
The use of images and graphics on a website is also important. They can help to add visual interest to a page, and can also be used to convey information or ideas. However, if too many images are used, or if they are not used correctly, they can actually detract from the overall look and effectiveness of the website.
The content of a website is critical in determining its success. The content must be well-written and accurate, and it should provide useful information or services to users. If the content is not good quality, users will not return to the site again. Additionally, the content should be updated regularly so that users can always find something new and relevant when visiting the website.
Navigation diagram / Story Board
A navigation diagram is a map of your website that shows how all the different pages on your site are connected. It should include every page of your website and clearly show which links lead to which pages. This will help ensure that users can easily find their way around your site, no matter how many pages it has.
Once you have your navigation diagram complete, you can move on to creating a storyboard for your website. A storyboard is essentially a visual representation of the flow of information through your website.
It should show how users will navigate through the different pages, what content they’ll see, and which actions they’ll be able to take. This will help you chart out the user experience on your website so that it’s easy and intuitive for visitors to use.
Shopping cart functionality
When you go to a website to shop, the first thing you see is the shopping cart. This is where all of your items are placed as you add them to your purchase. The shopping cart usually has a list of the items and their prices, as well as a total cost for the purchase. It is important that this area be easy to use and understand, or customers may leave without making a purchase.
The next step in the process is the checkout page. This is where you enter your payment and shipping information. The checkout page should also be easy to use and understand, as customers may become frustrated if they can’t figure out how to complete their purchase. Many websites offer security measures like encryption or two-factor authentication to protect customer data during this step.
Finally, the customer should be given a confirmation page that shows the order details and any additional information they may need to know about their purchase. This is typically where customers can also view their order history and track orders if needed. Confirmation pages should always be easy to read, as customers will want to make sure everything is correct before completing their purchase.
The goal of any online shopping experience is to make the process as easy and secure as possible for customers. If customers can easily and quickly complete their purchases, they are more likely to come back in the future. Therefore, creating a smooth checkout process with clear and understandable steps is essential for increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty.
By providing clear and straightforward instructions for the checkout process, you can help to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty over time.
A website is more than just a collection of static pages. It’s an interactive experience that can engage and entertain users. There are a number of different features you can use to create an interactive website. Here are some of the most common ones.
1. Blogs: Blogging has become a popular way to share thoughts and opinions online. A blog allows you to easily create posts, add images, and even embed videos. The content can then be shared with the audience through syndication feeds.
2. Chat Rooms: Chat rooms allow people to communicate in real-time on your website. This is a great way to engage with your audience and build community. You can set up chat rooms for specific topics or interests, or just allow people to talk about anything they want.
3. Forums: Forums are another great way to create an interactive experience on your website. A forum allows you to create categories, post questions, and answer questions from other users. This can help create a sense of community and foster discussion.
4. Social Media: Social media integration is another popular way to make your website interactive. You can integrate social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ into your site so that people can easily find and share content with others.
5. Games and Quizzes: People love to play games, and adding them to your website can be a great way to engage users. You can create simple quizzes or interactive games that allow people to compete against each other or just have fun exploring the content on your site.
6. Polls and Surveys: Polls and surveys are another way to engage users and get feedback. You can create polls on specific topics or general surveys that ask questions about the user experience. This is a great way to gain insight into what your audience likes and dislikes.
By adding these interactive features to your website, you can create an engaging and entertaining experience for your users. This can help to attract more visitors and keep them coming back for more. Just make sure to use these features in moderation – too many can be overwhelming! With the right combination of interactive elements, you can create a website that is truly engaging and memorable.
3.2 Develop specified components of a website
Creating a website is a daunting task. Not only do you have to come up with the content and design, but you also have to consider the technical aspects of putting it together. And if that’s not enough, you then have to worry about how people will find your site.
Fortunately, there are plenty of tools and resources available to help make the process a little easier. You can find templates, software, and even online courses that can walk you through the entire process. And if you need some help getting started, there are plenty of communities and forums where you can get feedback and advice from other web designers.
When it comes to developing the actual components of a website, there are several key elements that must be considered. First, you’ll need to define your site’s purpose and structure. This includes deciding on what type of content will be featured, which navigation system will be used, and how visitors will interact with the site. Once these decisions have been made, you can move on to coding the website.
The programming language that you choose will depend largely on your specific needs and preferences. HTML and CSS are two of the most popular languages for web design and development, but there are plenty of other options to choose from as well. Once the code is written, you’ll need to test the site to make sure it functions correctly.
Finally, you can begin optimizing and enhancing the website with features such as search engine optimization (SEO), social media integration, and user-friendly design. This process can be time-consuming, but it’s essential in order to ensure that your website will be successful. With a little planning and effort, you can create a website that will attract visitors and keep them coming back for more.
3.3 Test specified components of a website
Testing different aspects of a website are important in order to ensure that it functions as intended. By testing the site’s components, you can identify any errors and fix them before the site goes live. You can also test how well the site performs under different conditions, such as with a large number of concurrent users. This will help you to determine any potential bottlenecks and address them before they become a problem.
When testing a website, it is important to consider the different components that make up the site. This includes everything from testing the navigation and design of the site, to verifying all links are working correctly and checking for any broken or dead links. It is also important to test the functionality of any plugins or modules that may be installed on your website. This will allow you to ensure that everything is working as expected and properly integrated with the rest of your site.
You should also test the security of your website to make sure that it is not vulnerable to any potential attacks. This includes verifying user permissions, ensuring all data is encrypted and checking for any SQL injection vulnerabilities. Additionally, testing the site’s response time and server performance is essential to ensure the website runs smoothly.
Finally, it is important to test the usability of the website. This includes making sure that all elements are easy to use and understand, especially in regard to content, as well as testing any search functions or sorting algorithms that may be included in your site’s design. By running these tests, you can ensure that your website is easy to use and provides the best experience for its users.
Overall, testing the components of a website is an essential part of creating a successful and usable site. By running tests on all aspects of the website, you can identify any potential issues and address them before they become a problem.
Additionally, by testing for usability and security, you can ensure that the website is functioning as intended and providing the best possible experience for its users across multiple browsers and devices.
3.4 State the components required to produce a website
In order to produce a website, you will need a domain name and web hosting. You will also need some type of content management system (CMS) to create and manage your website’s content.
It’s also important to remember that a website is not complete without ongoing maintenance and updates. Keeping your site up-to-date with the latest security patches and content is essential for keeping it secure and attractive to visitors.
It’s also important to have a marketing plan in place for promoting your website. Search engine optimization (SEO), social media and advertising are some of the most effective ways of driving traffic to your site. Once you have the components in place, you can start building your website and focus on growing it into a successful online presence.